Imaging Modules Overview

From high resolution visible light imaging to reflective infrared measurements, all Scanalyzer products can be equipped with the right sensor to catch the detail that matters

All Scanalyzer systems can be equipped with a wide range of different sensors to answer the research question. In addition to visible light or fluorescent sensors hyperspectral and infrared imaging technologies complete the information gathered in and beyond human perception.

LemnaTec is constantly expanding human vision through imaging automatization, mainly by employing various fully controlled cameras in compliance with industrial standard. Wherever suitable these are equipped with high-quality macro or zoom lens systems. Camera resolutions are optimized for different purposes and range from 1.3 to 10 megapixels per image for visible imaging on 1/2’’ specially selected chips. These are the true source of perfect image quality! As a result of taking one image per well, a 96-well plate can, for example, be imaged with minimal distortion as a 100 megapixel image.

VIS

Visual assessment with high reproduciability and great flexibility

The basic sensor in all Scanalyzer systems is the visible light sensor that can take images in the range from 380 to 780 nm. Besides reproducing manual measurements, the VIS sensor can quantify a wide range of parameters that cannot be quantified manually or only with a significant level of individual variation. The general rule is: All things clearly visible in the images may be quantified. Strong correlations of above 90% can easily be established between ‘digital phenotyping parameters’ from the VIS sensor, such as digital biomass and manual measurements such as fresh weight.

  • Spatial Resolution up to 6576 x 4384 px
  • Spectral range VIS, 400 – 700 nm
  • Max frame rate at full resolution 17 fps
  • Bit depth 24 bit

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FLUO

Steady state fluorescent screening

Especially for fluorescence measurements having an excitation between 400 and 500 nm, LemnaTec’s Scanalyzer Systems can provide a customized illumination source, in combination with a special camera filter to detect fluorescent induced signals. The light source has a blue light with a maximum at 450 nm and a minimum at 400 nm. The filter on the camera blocks exactly this blue light and allows mainly light of 520 nm and more to pass.

  • Resolution 1390 x 1038 px
  • Spectral range VIS, 620 - 900 nm
  • Max frame rate at full resolution 24 fps
  • Bit depth 14 bit

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NIR

Detection of water content and water dynamics in shoot and root

Near infrared (NIR) or short-wave IR-imaging (SW-IR) can be used, for example, to get detailed information on the watering status of plant leaves and their reaction to limited water availability or external drought (e. g. during growth or storage periods).  Specific illuminations are available in combination with high-end NIR cameras for all Scanalyzer systems from small Arabidopsis to full size corn screening.

  • Resolution 640 x 480 px
  • Spectral range SWIR, 900 - 1700 nm
  • Max frame rate at full resolution 24 fps
  • Bit depth 14 bit

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IR

Spatial measurement of infrared reflection 

Heat imaging of plants has some very specific differences to most other types of imaging, such as visible light imaging, fluorescence imaging or near infrared imaging. In no other range of electromagnetic waves is the radiation emission so closely related to environmental conditions. At the same time, plants can change leaf temperature much faster than most other emission parameter by simply opening or closing their stomata.

  • Resolution 1388 x 1038 px
  • Spectral range VIS, 680 - 900 nm
  • Max frame rate at full resolution 5 fps
  • Bit depth 14 bit

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PSII

Measurement of Kautsky effect for physiological photosystem screening

The PSII Fluorescence sensor is utilized to spatially measure the Kautsky of dark- or light-adapted plants from small plants like Arabidopsis up to medium size corn plants.  The sensor system can image the activity of photosynthesis using a short intense LED pulse of light and induce the induction curve of the chlorophyll fluorescence. By capturing several fluorescence images the activity of photosynthesis is calculated as an image expressed for every pixel as Fv/Fm (variable fluorescence divided by the maximum fluorescence). Other than PAM-like measurements the Kautsky based measurements are independent on leaf angle or leaf distance from the sensor. 

  • Resolution 1388 x 1038 px
  • Spectral range VIS, 680 - 900 nm
  • Max frame rate at full resolution 5 fps
  • Bit depth 14 bit

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Hyperspectral

High spatial and spectral resolution for high end phenotyping and content detection

Hyperspectral sensors are a technology widely used for remote imaging, in an effort to extract a maximum of information out of images made under strongly varying imaging conditions, caused by the variability of the sunlight and changing atmospheric conditions. The application of hyperspectral imaging under highly controlled illumination conditions, as is standard in all LemnaTec Scanalyzer3D and ScanalyzerHTS systems, provides new options for data generation with high spectral resolution in a certain range of the full electromagnetic spectrum of frequencies. In contrast to the LemnaTec usage of multiple frequency imaging (VIS, NIR IR), hyperspectral imaging is rather focused across a range (e.g. 400–2500 nm), but takes images at a spectral resolution between 1 and 10 nm.

  • Spatial Resolution 1680 px line width
  • Spectral Resolution 923 bands
  • Spectral range VNIR, 400 – 1,000 nm
  • Max frame rate at full resolution 100 fps
  • Bit depth 16 bit

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Height Scan

Reflective height scans for top view applications

To measure the height of small plants like Arabidopsis or high density growing crops 3D height scanning sensors can be used. Height scans complete the information collected from such plants by adding information on leaf angle, leaf movement over time or the height distribution in high density growing environments. Different scanning options are available depending on the application. For applications where large areas need to be screened range scanners with a depth field of 0.7m – 3m are used with a depth resolution of ±4mm. In applications where small areas need to be screened with a high depth resolution (e.g. Arabidopsis) line laser scans are utilized to measure height differences of up to 0.9mm.